The focus is non understanding these social phenomenons.
Different kind of case studies but a common definition The essence of a case study, the central tendency among all types of case study, is that it tries to illuminate a decision or set of decisions: why they were taken, how they were implemented, and with what result (Schramm, 1971, emphasis added)This definition thus cites cases of “decisions” as the major focus of case studies.
Other common cases include “individuals,” “organisations,” “processes,” “programs,” “neighborhoods,” “institutions,” and even “events.”• Investigates a contemporary phenomenon in depth and within its real-life context, especially when• The boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident.
The case study is preferred in examining contemporary events, but when the relevant behaviors can not be manipulated.
So in general the case study has a general advantage when a ‘how’ or ‘why’ question is being asked about a contemporary set of events over which the investigator has little or no control.
The key is to understand that your research questions have both substance – for example what is my study about and form for example am I asking a who, what, where, why or how question.
Assuming that the ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions are to be the focus of the study, a further distinction among history, case study and experiment is the extent of the investigator’s control over and access to actual behavioral events.
Because phenomenon and context are not always distinguishable in real life situations, other technical characteristics, including data collection and data analysis strategies, become the second part of our technical definition of case studies:• copes with the technical distinctive situation in which there will be many more variables of interest than data points (f.i.
compared with experiments), and as one result • Relies on multiple sources of evidence, with data needing to converge in a triangular fashion, and as another result• Benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions to guide data collection and data analysis.
Many social scientist still believe that case studies are only appropriate for the descriptive phase, that surveys and histories are appropriate for the descriptive phase, and that experiments are the only way for doing explanatory or causal inquiries.
So case studies are only a preliminary research method and can not be used to describe or test propositions. If research focusses on what questions, either of two positions arises. What have been the way’s……Who and where (or how much or how many) questions are more likely to favor survey methods or the analysis of archival data, as in economic studies.
Case studies include both single and multiple-case studies.